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Role of the Herpes Simplex Virus Helicase-Primase Complex during Adeno-Associated Virus DNA Replication

The polymerase activity exhibits moderate fidelity and high processivity even in the absence of its processivity factor, UL42, largely due to a very slow rate of DNA dissociation (0.07 s–1).7 The exonuclease rapidly hydrolyzes double-stranded DNA (kcat = 6 s–1) although the exonuclease does not appear to greatly enhance the fidelity of DNA replication.6,7 Song et al. Lotsa space for your liquids. When a normal cell transforms, replicating uncontrollably, many unusual genes (including viral material such as herpes genes which are not normally expressed) are expressed with viral-specific functions. Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) encode seven viral proteins required for viral DNA replication: an origin binding protein (UL9), a single-strand binding protein (ICP8), a two-subunit polymerase (UL30-UL42), and a three-subunit helicase-primase complex (UL5, UL8, and UL52). The HSV-1 virion consists of a relatively large, double-stranded, linear DNA genome encased within an icosahedral protein cage called the capsid [2]. It has been suggested on the basis of studies of the replication of Escherichia coli and its phages that DNA replication is carried out by multimeric machines(1, 2, 3). However, drug-resistant HSV strains, and particularly ACV-resistant HSV strains, emerge frequently [3], [4].

However, only one had active lesion at the time of sampling and one reported positive history of genital sores in the past 6 months. These regions are recognized by initiator proteins that facilitate the formation of replication forks in a controlled manner. AAV contains a 4.7-kb linear single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome with two open reading frames, rep and cap, which are flanked by 145-bp inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). We will test the hypothesis that ICPO acts to alter the chromatin state by recruiting histone modification enzymes to viral and cellular genes. HSV-1 UL12 has both endo- and exonuclease activity (15-17, 36) and binds the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein ICP8 (37, 39) to form a recombinase that displays in vitro strand exchange activity similar to that for red α/β (27). The protein induces conformation changes (bending and partial melting) of OriS duplexes and stimulates HJ formation in the absence of ATP. These studies reveal that binding is specific for both duplex and single-stranded Box I sequences and that the strongest preference is for the bottom strand of Box I.

Acad. However, on a minority of eukaryotic mRNAs, translation initiates by means of a cap-independent mechanism, as first observed with picornaviruses (2, 3). Outside the cell, it never exists as a free entity but is always enclosed by the tegument and envelope. Lotsa space for your liquids. Since the termini of these viruses lack direct repeats, our findings indicate that circularization can be mediated by direct end-to-end ligation of linear input genomes. In this large prospective study, IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype was not associated with HSV-related outcomes, including episodes of oral or genital herpes. DNA replication intermediates were isolated from the well of a pulsed-field gel (“well DNA”) and treated with purified HSV-1 alkaline nuclease.

Two large clinical trials were performed to evaluate HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccines. It consists of a DNA polymerase with a processivity factor (the product of the UL30 and UL42 genes), a heterotrimeric helicase-primase complex (the product of the UL5, UL8, and UL52 genes), and the single-strand DNA binding protein ICP8 (the product of the UL29 gene). Therefore, the stability of the duplex region of the template-primer will depend on its DNA sequence, and proofreading efficiency will vary in different sequence contexts. The C-terminal 317 amino acids contain the DNA binding domain (11, 12). The Rep proteins are involved in diverse processes during the viral life cycle, such as DNA replication, regulation of gene expression, genome packaging, and site-specific genomic integration (13–18). In addition, it might also be important to create diversity to ascertain that chromosomes can be uniquely identified and preferentially replicated. Nevertheless, the a sequences may act as recombination hotspots.

The B capsid comprises seven proteins. Nature 2009; 457:421 – 425 [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] Recent studies have shown that these viral miRNAs participate in the regulation of herpesvirus lifecycle. These genes are assigned to four kinetic classes, designated as α, β, γ1, and γ2 on the basis of the timing of and requirements for their expression (46). Specific protein-protein interactions between ICP8, UL9 protein, and subunits of the DNA helicase primase are required for the assembly of these proteins into prereplicative sites, and recruitment of the DNA polymerase into this complex is mediated by the UL42 subunit (11, 12). Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)5 latently infects more than 90% of adults (1) and reactivates in 30%–50% of transplant recipients (1). During lytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, viral and cellular gene expressions are regulated at multiple steps of mRNA metabolism (1, 2), including transcription (2,–,8), splicing (2, 9,–,12), transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (2, 13,–,20), translation (21,–,32), and stabilization of mRNAs in the cytoplasm (33,–,43).